The City of Melbourne has two water treatment facilities: the John A. Buckley Surface Water Treatment Plant and the Joe Mullins Reverse Osmosis Treatment Facility.
- The Joe Mullins Reverse Osmosis Water Treatment Plant was put into operation in 1995 with a 6.5 million gallons per day capacity and a 4 million gallon ground water storage tank. The Reverse Osmosis Water Treatment Plant's raw water supply is obtained from four Floridan Aquifer wells at approximately 650 to 850 feet underground. Each yields approximately 3.1 million gallons per day.
- Water treated at the John A. Buckley Surface Water Treatment Plant is pumped from Lake Washington, which is the third uppermost of the naturally connected upper St. Johns River lakes. The lake is one of the few surface water supplies of drinking water in Florida.
The City of Melbourne supplies drinking water to the cities of Melbourne, Melbourne Beach, Indialantic, Indian Harbour Beach, Satellite Beach, Palm Shores, Melbourne Village and unincorporated Brevard County south of the Pineda Causeway. In addition, wholesale water service is provided to the City of West Melbourne.